Brake Disc

The brake disc is the component of a disc brake against which the brake pads are applied. The material is typically grey iron, a form of cast iron. The design of the disc varies somewhat. Some are simply solid, but others are hollowed out with fins or vanes joining together the disc's two contact surfaces usually included as part of a casting process. The weight and power of the vehicle determines the need for ventilated discs. The "ventilated" disc design helps to dissipate the generated heat and is commonly used on the more-heavily-loaded front discs.
The brake disc (or rotor) is usually made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites. This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. To retard the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads, mounted on the brake caliper, is forced mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically, or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop.
A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc in order to create friction that retards the rotation of a shaft, such as a vehicle axle, either to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it stationary. The energy of motion is converted into waste heat which must be dispersed. Hydraulic disc brakes are the most commonly used form of brake for motor vehicles but the principles of a disc brake are applicable to almost any rotating shaft.
Compared to drum brakes, disc brakes offer better stopping performance because the disc is more readily cooled. As a consequence discs are less prone to the brake fade caused when brake components overheat. Disc brakes also recover more quickly from immersion (wet brakes are less effective than dry ones).
Most drum brake designs have at least one leading shoe, which gives a servo-effect. By contrast, a disc brake has no self-servo effect and its braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the brake pad by the braking system via any brake servo, braking pedal, or lever. This tends to give the driver better "feel" and helps to avoid impending lockup. Drums are also prone to "bell mouthing" and trap worn lining material within the assembly, both causes of various braking problems.